Saturday, November 20, 2010

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (Part 3)


Shivajis Character and personal attributes: An Analysis
Shivaji was a person of impeccable character. This probably was something to do with the upbringing of his mother, Jijabai. She had raised him to be a man of virtuosity and instilled the values of rectitude in Shivaji. He was always conscious of the honour of the womenfolk. Shivaji was very chivalrous in his behavior towards them. He never gave a free rein to his lust and also expected the same moral high standards from his men. He had issued orders to his army, that no womenfolk were to be touched during raids in the enemy territory. There are records of him having punished even his close relatives for moral misdemeanor against women. There are stories of him returning the captive daughter in law of the muslim governor of Kalyan (who was taken a prisoner during a raid), unharmed and with due honour.
 Shivaji was a great judge of human character. No wonder he was able to hand pick gems amongst the people that ably supported him in his goal of swarajya. He inspired people with his camaraderie, personal morality and loftiness of aim, and people willingly gave their lives for his cause.His men also had confidence in their kings honesty that even after their deaths the king would take care of their families.
Shivajis bravery is also without doubt, after all he dared to challenge the supremacy of two great powers, when his contemporaries preffered meek submission to them. But at the same time Shivaji was never reckless.When times arose, he always thought it prudent to retreat, rather than to risk lives. But after waiting patiently for the right opportunity , he struck back at the enemy with an equal vigour.
Shivajis fortitude of mind is also evident from the way he regained most of the forts he ceded to the mughals. He did not let circumstances bog him down nor did he let the power of his enemy daunt him into meekness. But like a phoenix he rose to surrmount the adversities.
His military astuteness is also very evident. Shivaji was famous for the swift movements of his army, his shock and awe attacks on the enemy camp, and his gureilla tactics while taking on a powerfull enemy. He ensured that his army always travelled light, unlike the heavy entourage accompanying the Mughals. His armymen were never allowed to take their families along with them. This ensured rapid mobility for his army. Shivaji was also a master tactician, who took into consideration the geographical locations before launching attacks , the enemies weaknesses and streangths (estimated on basis of the information of his ever vigilant spy network).
Shivaji was as ruthless towards his enemies as he was loyal to his friends. He has often been accused of deceit, but its always been towards his foes and never towards his friends. He always followed Kautilyas policy of ' End is more important than the means' to achieve his military goals and he cannot be faulted for this as he had to face even more treacherous and formidable enemies.
Shivaji was very austere in his tastes. He never spent lavishly constructing magnificent palaces, rather he spent his wealth constructing strong and practical forts which proved a security for his kingdom. Shivaji was devoid of vices. He never indulged himself in the worldly pleasures, rather he preferred spending his time and money on his people and their welfare. He lived his life like a puritan as per the code of morality set up by his mother Jijabai and his spiritual guru Ramdas Swami.
He cared for the welfare of his people, looking after their financial needs and earned the respect of his people.
Shivajis greatness is not gauged from the territory he added , nor by the treasure he left behind, but as J.Sarkar says, from the survey of the conditions amidst which he rose to sovegreignty. His other achievement was the feeling he gave his Ryot, that the kingdom he has formed is their own kingdom, created for their well being.
Shivaji was a devoted son, very respectful towards his elders and seers, a loving husband, a doting father. Shivaji had in him all the prerequisites of an ideal man (a Maryada Purushottam like Lord Ram).
No wonder Shivaji is deified as a demi God (till date) in his state .


Shivajis Religious and social policy
Shivaji though a devout Hindu, had a very liberal policy towards other religions. Shivajis spiritual ideologue was Swami Ramdas, whom he had had seated in the Parali fort, later named Sajjangadh. But Shivaji had tremendous reverence towards seers of other faiths as well like Pir Baba Yakut a Sufi saint. Shivajis respect for the holy book Quran is even conceded by his critic the mughal historian Khafi Khan. Shivaji had given standing instructions to his men, that in any encounter, if they came across any holy book including the Quran, it was not to be defiled, but treated with utmost respect. Also religious places belonging to other faiths were not to be desecrated.He even allowed the construction of a tomb in the memory of his slain enemy, Afzal Khan at fort Pratapgad.
But at the same time Shivaji was a proud Hindu, and was always quick to take up the Hindu cause. When Aurangzeb levied the Jaziya Tax (in addition to the regular khiraaj viz 5% of revenue earned by hindus) on his non muslim subjects, Shivaji sent him a bold letter castigating him for his intolerance and bigotry and warning him of its negative repurcussions.

Note: The official reason of Jaziya tax was that a non muslim could practise his religion without fear under a muslim govt after paying this tax. But unofficially this led to a lot of poor people converting to Islam so as to avoid paying this tax.

 Shivaji may have rallied his soldiers in the name of religion (it cannot be denied that religion played a major role in medieval times), but he was never a religious zealot. His fight was mainly political. He never advocated forcefull conversions to Hinduism. He allowed people of other faiths to practice their religion without the fear of persecution (unlike his Islamist counterparts). Little wonder that he had even Muslim officers in his army, even in the highest ranks.

Shivaji never intervened in the social practices (presently which are termed archaic e.g Sati) prevalent in the medeival times. He was also superstitious like all the kings of his times. Tantra, mantra was prevalent during his tenure (remember his coronation took place twice, second time as per tantric rites citing presence of bad omens during the first time around). Therefore Shivaji cannot be termed as a social reformer. He was a product of his times. But he was not a blind follower of those social practices either. It can be seen by the way he prevented his mother from commiting Sati after the death of his father. But in fairness it can be said that he never stopped his subject from following those practices either.

Note: Shivajis bejewelled firangi styled sword 'Bhawani' is very famous. It was presented to Shivaji by one Gowalekar Sawant of Kudal.

Note: Samarth Ramdas swami was said to be the spiritual guide of  Ch.Shivaji (He provided Shivaji with a moral and religious purpose to carry on with his struggles against his enemies. Whether he was Shivajis political guru is always debatable. Mainly because records of him meeting Shivaji occur during the last decade of Shivajis life.) . Ramdas swami also respected the fact that Ch.Shivaji was the only person of his times to protect the interests of the Hindu fold and religion. Ramdas swami mainly created awareness amongst the people about the greatness of Shivaji and exhorted the youth to join him in large numbers. Shivaji respected Ramdas swami and had hosted the swami in his Parli fort.
Nowadays there is an attempt  to project Sant Tukaram as Shivajis guru. But there is no historical recoord that proves that a meeting between Tukaram and Shivaji ever took place. Not to mention that Tukaram was a social reformer and politics was never his sphere of influence. But the same cannot be said about Ramdas.

All the Kings Men
Shivaji was a great judge of human character. He was a great leader who inspired loyalty in his people. Shivajis men willingly laid down their lives for his purpose.There were many a people who rose to prominence in his kingdom and became legends in their own right.Here is a list of some of his celebrated warriors :· 
Kanhoji Jedhe (Shahajis trusted aide, assisted Shivaji in his early battles)· Gomaji Naik (earlier employee of Lakhuji Jadhavrao. He was sent along with Jijabai to serve the Bhosales.An early aide of Shivaji)· Baji Pasalkar (was one of the earliest aides of Shivaji.He was the deshmukh of Muse Khore. He was one of the earliest martyrs who laid down his life fighting against the Adilshahi forces at Purandar)· Yesaji Kank(was one of the early aides of Shivaji. He was the killedar of Torna fort)· Mankoji Dahatonde (Shivajis first sarsenapati).Netaji Palkar (earlier havaldar of fort purandar later commander in chief of Shivajis army)Prataprao Gujar (a.k.a Kudtoji, earlier sarnobat at fort rajgad, later sarsenapati of Shivaji after Netaji Palkar. The baalad ' vedaat marathe veer daudaley saat' is based on his martyrdom. The other six martyrs along with Prataprao were : Visaji Ballal, Dipaji Rautrao, Vithal Piraji Atre,Krishnaji Bhaskar,Vithoji Shinde and Siddi Hilal). Hambirao Mohite(sarsenapati after Prataprao Gujar).  Balaji Avji Chitre Chitnis (secretary). Ramchandra Neelkanth Muzumdar (Amatya). Ramchandra Trimbak Dabir (foreign secretary). Niraji Raoji (chief justice).Pralhad Niraji (son of Niraji Raoji.accompanied Shivaji to Agra). Moropant Pingale (Mukhyapradhan). Anandrao. Baji Prabhu Deshpande (laid down his life at Pawan Khind and allowed Shivajis escape from Panhala)· Murar Baji Deshpande (defended fort Purander with his life against Diler Khan the Mughal commander)· Bapuji Mudgal Deshpande ( wrested Kondana fort by guile from the Adilshahi)· Balaji and Chimnaji Mudgal Deshpande- sons of Bapuji (were a part of Shivajis team that raided Shaistakhan at Lal Mahal, Pune), Yeshwantrao and Babaji Prabhu (defended Vajragad against Diler Khans onslaught)· Tanaji Malusare (laid down his life while capturing Kondana from the Mughals)· Suryaji Malusare (assisted his brother Tanaji in capturing Kondana, spearheaded the Maratha forces after Tanaji fell)· Suryaji Kakde (Shivajis childhood friend who died in the battle of Salher).Kavji Malhar (early aide of Shivaji, died in the battle of Shirval). Bahirji Naik (Shivajis famous spy)· Phirangoji Narsala (defended Chakan fort against Shaista Khans army)·Moro Trimbak Pingale (Shivajis Peshwa)· Hiroji Farzand (replaced Shivaji at Agra.Was said to be a look alike of Shivaji)· Jiva Mahala (Shivajis bodyguard who slew Sayyid Banda, associate of Afzal khan)·Nanaji Vishwasrao Dighe Deshpande (chief of Shivaji's spy unit). Bahirji Naik Jadhav (chief of Shivaji's spy unit)· Baji Bandal (assisted in the attack on Afzal Khans forces and during the battle of Pawankhind). Sonopant Dabir (He was the foreign secretary of Shivaji, especially during Shivajis early times and was a part of the initial batch of men sent by Shahajiraje to administer the estate. He was later succeeded by his son Trimbakpant).Trimbakpant Dabir (imprisoned in Agra). Raghunath Ballal (imprisoned in Agra). Raghunarhpant Hanumante.Janardhanpant Hanumante.Annaji Datto was a seasoned administrator and judge in Shivajis kingdom.·Ramchandrapant Amatya. Mainak Bhandari (naval commander), Antaji Konde Deshmukh(Antaji Konde-Deshmukh was associated with Shivaji in his initial period when Shivaji first came to Pune from Shivneri and got settled in Lal Mahal. It was 1636 when, the family met Jijabai and offered her their own house to stay. He was associated with Bapuji Mudgal deshpande at Khed)· Santaji Ghorpade (was a kinsman of the Ghorpades of Mudhol, also relatives of the royal Bhosales.Ghorpades had been sworn enemies of Shahajiraje and Shivaji, but Santajis father had laid down his life fr the Bhosales, winning their favour. Santaji later played a prominent role after Sambhajis death in battling the mughals)· Dhanaji Jadhav(son of Shambhusingh Jadhav and great grandson of Achaloji the cousin of Jijabai – Acholjis son Santaji and later his son Shambhusingh Jadhav were raised by Jijabai in the royal palace along with Shivaji and later prince Sambhaji respectively. Dhanaji later played a prominent role after Sambhajis death in battling the mughals, along with Santaji Ghorpade. Both were considered a fearsome duo by the enemies of the marathas)· Balaji Avaji Chite 'Chitnis' (Shivajis secretary)· Rango Narayan Orpe Sarpotdar (defeated the Adilshahi army at Vishalgad, later made the killedar of Vishalgad fort)· Kavaji Kondhalkar (First Battle of Shivaji Maharaj - Shirval khot)· Baji Jedhe (son of Kanhoji Jedhe)·Sambhaji Jadhav (laid down his life in the battle of Pawan khind)· Kondaji Ravlekar (captured fort Panhala). Raghunath Ballal ( played an important role during the expedition of Tale, Ghosale, where he fell ill and died).· Vyankoji Datto (played an important role during the expedition of Danda Rajapuri).· Bhimaji Wagh (early aide of Shivaji)· Sambhaji Kate (early aide of Shivaji)· Shivaji Ingle (early aide of Shivaji)· Bhikaji Chor (early aide of Shivaji)· Bhairav Chor (early aide of Shivaji)· Godaji Jagtap-Patil (early aide of Shivaji., played an important part in the Purandar battle)· Ragho Atre (early aide of shivaji.Played an prominent role while routing Afzal Khans army)·  Sambhaji Kavji (slew Afzal Khan. apparently defected to the mughal side and was killed by Prataprao Gujar). Harji Nimbalkar· Maya Naik· Fullaji Prabhu Deshpande· Gangadhar Pant· Keso Narayan Deshpande· Kondaji Farzand (seiged Panhala with just sixty men)· Lay Patil Koli· Savlya Tandel ( a famed sentry of a fort who strictly followed the discipline set by Shivaji about entry and exit timings for the forts and said to have stopped even the king himself who wanted a entry beyond the stipulated time. The ballad 'khabardar jar taatch maaruni jaal pudhe saungadya' is based on Savlya Tandel). Ajitsingh Paigude Deshmukh· Neelkanthrao Surnaik· Suryaji Kakade· Yesaji Dabhade· Laksmanrao Paigude Deshmukh· Ramoji Dhamale Deshmukh· Jaswantrao Dalvi, Palvan· Indroji Gawade· Kaldhonde· Kondaji Vadkhale· Krushnaji Bhaskar· Gunoji Darekar· Changoji Kadu· Dhavalekar· Tansavant Bhosale· Tansavant Mavale· Tanaji Tunduskar· Tukoji Kadu· Trimbak Prabhu· Dattaji Idilkar· Nagoji Pralhad· Javaji Mahanlaj· Jamaji Paye· Balajirao Darekar· Bhakaji Dalvi· Mahadji Farzand· Mal Sawant· Munbaji Benmana· Mudholji Sondeo· Yesaji Darekar· Pilaji Gole· Pilaji Sanas· Ram Dalvi· Ramaji More· Vithoji Lad· Sonn Dalve· Hiroji Bhaldar· Hiroji Marathe· Shama Khan· Anandrao Hasham Hazari· Udoji Pawar· Krishnaji Ghatage· Khandoji Jagtap· Gondaji Jagtap· Gunoji Shirke· Jetoji Katkar· Tukoji Nimbalkar· Shivajirao Telangrao sardar· Bhavanrao sardar· Baloji Katkar· Yesaji Katkar· Manaji More· Ramji Kakade· Rupaji Bhosale· Vaghoji Shirke· Venkoji Khandkar· Santaji Jagtap· Niloji Phate· Nimbaji Patole· Parsoji Bhosale· Sambhaji Hanbirao· Savaji Mohite· Amaroji Pandare· Uchale· Krushnaji Bhandade· Keroji Pawar· Chando Narayan· Chando Hirdeo· Janrao Waghmare· Trimbak Vithal· Devaji Ughade· Narsoji Shitole· Nagoji Ballal· Nemaji Shinde· Bayaji Gadadare· Balwantrao Gadkate· Bahirji Ghorpade· Bahirji Vadgare· Balaji Nilkant· Balaji Bahirav· Khemani· Khandoji Atole· Ganesh Tukdeo· Ganesh Shivdeo· Balaji Shivtare· Mahadji Narayanrao· Maloji Thorat· Mudhoji Thorat· Ragho Balal· Ramaji Janardhan· Sankaroji Mane· Hiroji Shelke.Godaji Kamble.Bhimaji Wagh.Sambhaji Kate.Bhikaji Chore.Bhairav Chore.Shivaji Ingle.
Muslim aides of Shivaji - Daulat Khan(Shivajis naval Admiral)· Darya Sarang (Shivajis naval commander)· Noor Khan Beg (Shivajis first Sarnobat)· Ibrahim Khan (Shivajis naval commander)· Madari Mehtar (Shivajis bodyguard during Agra visit)· Siddi Hilal (Was a part of the battle of Kolhapur. He also assisted Netaji Palkar during seige of Panhala by Siddi Johar)·Siddi Wahwah Khan (son of Siddi Hilal who was killed while attacking Siddi Johars men during the Panhala seige). Siddi Sambal ( was once in charge of Mughal navy, but fell out with his fellow Siddis (Qasim and Khairiyat of Janjira) and joined Shivaji)· Hussain Fahn miyan· Siddi Wahwaha· Siddi Ambar wahad· Sultan khan· Daud Khan· Siddi Misri (nephew of Siddi Sambal, who switched sides to Shivaji along with Siddi Sambal and died in battle for Sambhaji fighting Siddi Qasim of Janjira)· Haider Ali Kohari(he was a warrior and also an Islamic scholar. He also served as Shivajis secretary)·
Besides these illustrious men there were many unknown soldiers who contributed to Shivajis Swarajya (The freed land) .

Shivajis Council of Ministers
In the early days of Dadoji Kondeo, the council of ministers was composed of four officers only viz. the Peshwa( Chief Minister), the Majumdar(Auditor),the Dabir(Foreign secretary) and the Sabnis(Paymaster). After the death of Dadoji, Shivaji added an Sarnaubat (Master of the horse/ Commander in chief of the army) and a second Dabir to the above four. After the conquest of Javli (1656), the council was further expanded by creating a Surnis (Suprintendent to keep the palace accounts)and a Waqnis (Chronicler) and two distinct commanders for the infantry and the cavalry. After his return from Agra, Shivaji appointed a Lord Justice( Nyayaadheesh) to try all suits in the kingdom according to the Sanskrit lawbooks.By 1674 (at the time of his coronation), the number of ministers had risen to eight, and were known as the Ashta Pradhan (council of eight ministers). The role of these ministers was more or less advisory and Shivaji kept all the strings of the administration in his own hands.[source:J.Sarkar]

Shivajis Army Organisation
Every fort and outpost was placed under three officers of equal status viz. the Havaldar (chief constable), the Sabnis (chief accountant) and the Sarnaubat (chief of guard). Stores and provisions of the forts were in charge of the Karkhanis.In the state cavalry (paga),the unit was formed by 25 troopers (bargirs), over 25 men was placed one havaaldar, over 5 havaaldars was one Jumledaar, over 10 jumledaars (or 1250 men) was one Hazari. Over 5 Hazaris was the Sarnaubat.The Silahdaars or troopers, supplied their own horse and arms and acted under the Sarnaubat.In the infantry, there was one Naik(corporal) to every nine Paiks(privates), over 5 naiks one havaldar,over 2-3 havaldars one jumledar, and over 10 jumledars one hazari. Over 7 hazaris were one Sarnaubat of the infantry.

Shivajis Revenue system and administration
Earler it was seen that the revenue collectors of the Sultanates (the Patils, Desais,Deshmukhs etc) were powerfull in their own right and at times challenged even the army of their king. They often behaved like tyrants in their fiefs, often harassing the Ryat (citizens). Shivaji therefore saw to it that the castles and armies of these revenue collectors were dismantled. Even the military fief holders were divested of any political power. Their land was subjected to assessment like the fields of the other Ryot . Also was ensured that no one was given proprietary rights over an entire village. The revenue officers (Patils, Khots, Kulkarnis) were kept on a fixed salary. Thus no individual officer was made powerfull enough and was kept uder the purview of the law as any other citizen.Shivaji also ensured a fixed tax that was to be taken from the Ryat, unlike before. Shivaji provided seeds, fertilizers, soft loans to the farmers.He evenly distributed his land between his subjects. He took into consideration the rainfall and the harvest before levying his taxes.

Shivajis Family
In keeping with the prevalent practice of those times, Shivaji had eight wives. His marriages were matrimonial alliances, which got with him the support of the powerfull families of Maharashtra.His first wife was Saibai from the house of Nimbalkars of Phaltan. He married her sometime in 1641(died Sept 1657). She bore him his eldest son Sambhaji and three daughters viz.Sakwarbai aka Savitribai, married to Mahadji Nimbalkar of Phaltan,Ranoobai married in the family of Jadhavraos,Ambikabai married to Harjiraje Mahadik,(later governor of Jinji)His second wife was Sagunabai, a close relative of his commander, Netaji Palkar.She became mother of Rajkunwarbai, who married Ganoji Shirke (he was in the Mughal service).Shivajis third wife was Sakwarbai from the house of Gaikwads (married 10th Jan 1657).She bore a daughter Kamlabai who married the son of Netaji Palkar. Sakwarbais brother Sakhoji was blinded by Shivaji allegedly for moral misdemeanor.Shivajis fourth wife was Kashibai (died 6th Feb 1674), from the family of Jadhavraos. She had no issues.Shivajis fifth wife was Putlabai (married 15th April 1657) from the Ingle family. Putlabai performed Sati on the death of Shivaji.Shivajis sixth wife was Soyrabai from the family of Mohites. She bore him a son Rajaram and a daughter, Dadubai aka Balubai. Soyrabai died on 27th Oct 1681, allegedly after being imprisoned by Sambhaji after she tried instating her son Rajaram on the throne after the death of Shivaji.However, Rajaram succeeded the throne after the death of his step brother, Sambhaji.
Shivaji had two more wives Laxmibai and Gunwantabai. Not many details are available about them.

Shivajis Forts
* Achalgiri* Ahivantgad* Ankole-Koat* Kurudu or Mandargad* Kushtarga Koat* Kechar Koat* Kopalgad* Kondhana or Shingad* Khelna or Vishalgad* Dhangad* Chandan* Chaud or Prasanngad* Jaygad* Javalegad* Jivdhan* Mahulegad* Mangalur Koat* Yelbargigad* Rasalgad* Rangana or Parshidhagad* Rohidagad* Thakarigad* Tanvada* Trimbak or Shrigad* Noobadgad* Panalgad* Paraligad or Sajjangad* Pali or Sarasgad* Pandavgad* Purandhar* Phonda Koat* Bahadurgad* Bhorap or Sudhagad* Madgirigad* Manohargad* Masitwade or Mangad* Vandangad* Shiveshavar Koat* Satargad* Salerigad* Salobhagad* Lavadkoat* Linganagad* Lohagad* Valabhagad* Hadpsar or Parvatgad* Harushgad* HaliyalForts Shivahi built / reconstructed* Anjanveli* Kthorgad* Kankandrigad* Kapalgad* Kamargad* Kamalgad* Kalanidhigad* Kambalgad* Kangori or Mangalgad* Kanchangad* Kangorigad* Kunjargad* Kelanja* Kothalagad* Kohajgad* Kholgad* Gagangad* Gajendragad* Gadagad* Gahangad* Gandharvagad* Gambhirgad* Janjire Kulaba* Janjire Khanderi* Janjire Ratanagiri* Bhaskargad* Bhivgad* Janjire Vijayduraga* Janjire Shindhuduraga* Janjire Suvarnadurga* Dholagad* Tikona or Vitandgad* Tunggad or Kathingad* Torana or Prachandgad* Dahigad* Nargundgad or Mahadgad* Nanchanagad* Nakgad* Patgad* Patakagad* Padmagad* Pavitragad* Pargad* Pavangad* Prachitgad* Pratapgad* Prondagad* Balvantgad* Bahiravgad or saranga* Bahulgad* Baleraja* Botgiri Koat* Ramsejgad* Rudramalgad* Bhudargad* Bhushangad* Machaindragad* Madangad* Mardangad* Manranjangad* Mahindragad* Mayorgad or Navalgund* Mahipatgad* Mahipalgad* Mahimangad* Mangalgad* Mandangad* Mandargad* Manikgad* Murgod* Mohangad* Yelurkoat* Raigad * Rajgad * Rajegad* Ravalagad* Rajkot* Ramdurga* Sundargad* Sevanagad* Sevakgad* Lohagad * Lokalgad* Loanjagad* Vardhangad* Vangad* Vasantgad* Valabhagad* Varugad* Vasota or Vyagragad* Virgad or Ghosala* Vairatgad* Venktgad* Shrigaldavagad* Shrimantgad* Shrivardangad* Sabalgad* Sargad* Sahangad* Samangad* Sarangagad* Sindhichangad* Sidhagad* Subakargad* Sumangad* Surgad* Songad*HarishachandragadOther Gadkot forts in Kingdom of Shivaji* Arkotgad* Karnatakagad* Kasturigad* Kevalgad* Krishnagiri chandi* Krushnagiri gad* Kujargad* Gagangad* Gavargad chandi* Chavi kot* chelgadchandi* Chintahar kot* Jagadevgad* Trichandikot* Trikalur* Trimalkot* Devgad* Prabalgad* Prangad* Bahiravgad* Birge Valugugad* Madgad* Mangad* Malakarajungad* Malharrajgad* Martandgad* Yeshvantgad* Ratangad* Ranjangad* Ramgad* Lavvad chandi* Vishalgad* Vetaval or kemal* Vrudhacalkot* Devanapati kot* Sarangadchandi* Sidhagad* Sudarshangad* Subhakot* NilsajitgadForts in Karanataka Region* Shrivardhangad* Ahinijadurga* Akatigad* Arajungad* Bramagad* Bhanjangad* Banturgad* Bhaskargad* Kattargad* Kailasgad* Kolar Kadim* Kolhar* Ganeshgad* Chandangad* Thamakurkoat* Durgamgad* Nandigad* Padavirgad* Palegad* Pimpala or Prakashgad* Balapur Bhor* Bindanur* Bhuravdgad* Bundikot* Bhimagad Near Kapsheri* Bhumandangad* Makarandgad* Mardangad* Mandonmattgad chandi* Mahipalgad* Mahimandangad* Mukhanegad Kotvel* Mej Kolhargad* Yelur Kot* Rajgad Chandi* Vajragad* Saragad* Soamshankargad* Hatmalgad

Important resources that provided information of Shivaji: Jedhe Shakavali (from Jedhe family who were loyal nobles/courtiers of Shivaji), Malhar Ramrao Chitnis (descendent of Balaji Avaji Chitnis), Sabhasad,Parmanand (a court poet of Shivaji originally from  Newasa), 91 kalmi bakhar, English/Dutch/French/Portuguese/Italian (Manucci a mercenary in the mughal camp) /Persian-Mughal-Mohammedan sources(e.g Khafi Khan).


  1. Superb
    Vedat marathe veer daudale saat.
    jai maratha
    jai bharat.

  2. खूपच छान
    मोडिलिपी ऐतिहासीक दस्त ऐवज संदर्भाने माझे ज्ञानगंगा मोडिलिपी हे facebook कृपया पहावे सदर page वर महत्वाची माहिती उपलब्ध आहे

    Ramakant mane
    (Deputy superintendent of police)
    modi script researcher,pune

  3. Khupach Chan Mahiti.

    Mane Saheb Krupaya Sardar Manaji More yanchyabaddal mahiti havi hoti

    Krupaya amhas mahitichi madat kara

    Vipul More 8237083303